(Mund të jetë përvoja e aderimit të Rumanisë në BE
një model për Shqipërinë?)
Shqipëroi / Traducerea : Kopi Kyçyku
Starting from 24th of April, 2014, Albania has become an official applicant for adhering to European Union. “In line” there stood Turkey (1999), Macedonia (2005) Montenegro (2010) and Serbia (2012). It is commonly known that the order in line has no importance in the accession process, it is the performances that each state achieve in the process that really count. Thus, it is very important that in this race with one goal but numerous ways of achieving it, one might choose the best and shortest one.
As it is stated in the sub-title, the present work aims to answer to one question, both legitimate and important for Albania’s social- economic course in the near future. Can Romania’s accession to the European Union represent a model for Albania, whose accession is not a matter of „if” but a matter of „when”?
The answer to this question ensues two other questions: the first: Why does Albania need a model in the first place?, and the second: Why could Romania be a model to Albania?
Let’s take them one at a time. Does Albania need a model in its accession process to EU? It is one of the questions to which both variants of answer can be true. If the answer is NO, the argument the answer relies on, is that, and no doubt about it, even without inspiring from the experience of other states which have gone through the same accession process, the Albanian political class is able to achieve this goal relying on itself and on the support EU gives it for the accession. If the answer is YES, it is taken into account the fact that, on the one hand, by having a model, discovering „the wheel” and „hot water” can be averted, because others have discovered them before, and, on the other hand, different errors can avoided, errors which inevitably must have been made during such an intricate course of accessing to EU, as a result of either an inevitable and explicable enthusiasm, or a erroneous assessment of certain situations or solutions to different problems.
Concluding what has been said so far and assessing objectively and responsibly the two answers, - I repeat, both true- it seems more beneficial to Albania’ s accession process to EU to take into account the experience of another state, to have a „model” created by the process accession to EU which that state has gone through. And the ‚model” keeps only the positive and successful elements, while the errors and failures are signalled as such, and thus, anyone who will follow this model will be able to avoid them.
Having answered to the first question, let’s turn to the second one: Why could Romania be a model for Albania? We have reached the conclusion that it would be beneficial to consider a model of the accession process to EU. But, if we take a look at the EU’s enlargement process, starting from the moment when the ex communist states of Central and Eastern Europe began to be taken into account, we have the following situation: stage 2004, when Poland, Slovenia, Hungary, Malta, Cyprus, Latvia, Czech Republic, Slovakia accessed; stage 2007, when Romania, Bulgaria accessed; stage 2013, when Croatia accessed. So, 13 states accessed, which, theoretically and practically, can offer a model of the accession process. Consequently, we resume the question: Why Romania?
The present paper tries to offer a first answer from the very beginning, in Ad argumentum, where, appealing to history, it is demonstrated that, even if they are different from other peoples (Serbian, Bulgarian, Macedonian) the Romanians and the Albanians have a lot of things in common- starting from the kinship between the Thracians and Illyrians, the ancestors of the two peoples- continuing with the co-existence, always peaceful and cooperative, between the Albanians and the Vlachs from South Danube (Macedonians, Aromanians), with the existence of an Albanian minority in Romania, which has been a constant presence ever since the Middle Eve, as well with, in the modern age, the support Romania has given to help create the Albanian national state.
In the realistic preface of the paper – „We will be again what we have been and even more” Romania of the year 1989 is presented, the last year of communism, the restarting point of capitalism and democracy. In 1989, Romania would produce almost everything that it was produced throughout the world, it was even suspected to be able to produce the atomic bomb (which, apparently, was true, Romanian giving up the project only in 1993) and to own a secret weapon based on laser, which would have worried the Russians in 1968, when they were thought to invade Romania (those 40 divisions of the Treaty of Warsaw, were to attack Romania on 22th of November, 4 a.m.), which, at that moment, would rely upon 1 million soldiers ( around 350. 000 army soldiers and the rest represented by the so called „patriotic guards”)
In 1982, Romania was already the tenth country in the world to produce machine tools and it was the biggest exporter of wagons for goods and the third biggest exporter of drilling installations, all of them based on the metallurgic and iron products fabricated in Romania. Romania was one of the fewest countries which would build up drilling sea platforms, assembled in Galati with components made in the country, and one of the fewest producers of calculus engineering- the famous „Felix” computers. In the naval field, Romania would produce the whole range of commercial ships, including tank ships of high tonnage, fishing ships and refrigerating ones. The aeronautic industry, liquidated by the Soviets after the war (it was founded in 1926), was restarted in 1968 by opening plants in Brasov, Craiova, Bucharest and Bacau.
Based on the western technology as well as on the Soviet one, the most successful projects were the following: Yak-52 (the most used training aeroplane in Soviet Union), medium sized currier plane Rombac 1 (built under the Rolls-Royce license and the helicopters IAR-316 and IAR- 330 Puma). Another example of a training and strike aircraft developed in Romania was the IAR-93 and its later version, IAR-99.
In 1965, the automotive industry in Romania managed to produce only 3600 automobiles. In 1980, it was divided into three automobile factories (in Craiova, Pitesti and Camulung Muscel), eight factories of sub-assemblies and 100 factories of tools. The factory in Pitesti began to produce Dacia in 1968, under Renault license and reached the number of one million automobiles in 1985. In 1986, the factory in Timisoara started its production of Dacia 500 (Lastun) using only Romanian technology (the pride to build up a 100% Romanian automobile was preceded only by the jokes made on its account). In Craiova Olcit was being produced, under Citroen license, in Campulung Muscel, Aro, an exceptional off road automobile, used by the armies of different states, in Brasov, trucks and tractors, in Bucharest, busses, in Braila, excavators etc. In 1988, the production would register 121.000 automobiles, and over 17.000 trucks, way under the target established by the government, that of 365.000/year, till 1990. Moreover, Romania produced factories- of trucks, cement, armament, oil distilleries etc for other countries like Egypt, Iraq, Libya, Iran, as well as irrigation systems and buildings for the headquarters of certain government institutions in Arabic and African States.
The armament industry was not neglected, either, Romania producing the whole range of light armament for mountainous fights, as well as cannons, howitzers, anti-aircraft and anti-cannon missiles, armoured cars ( the famous TR), torpedoes, fighting aeroplanes and helicopters. And there was one more thing, in 1989, Romania managed to pay the external to the last cent, even receiving penalties for paying in advance. On 31 of March, 1989, the last instalment of 1790 million dollars was paid, all the money coming from the selling of 80 tones of gold from BNR reserve fund. It was a very clever manoeuvre, so that this huge gold offer should not result in dropping the price of gold. Moreover, Romania was supposed to cash some debts (from Libya, Sudan, Iraq, Iran and others) of 8,6 million dollars. Together with Iran, Romania was planning to found a new world’s bank that should grant advantageous loans to the developing countries, which would have transformed it into a competitor to FMI.
That was Romania in 1989: a mixture of feelings of hate against the Ceausescu family, of fear of the Romanian Intelligence, a country which produced everything one could imagine, including high quality food products, but where there was famine, where one could watch TV only a couple of hours a day, but where people would read a lot, a country where the working class was the leading class, without being aware of it, a country where the cinema and the theatre would often defy the censorship and would carry out exceptional performances, a country where the most used word in mass media was „Ceausescu”, also mentioned behind the stage, accompanied by curses, a country which, at its destined moment - December 1989 - was so unpredictable, that it thwarted its sinister fate, and continued to exist, between its natural borders, in spite of its eternal enemies.
The recent past of Romania and Albania, after freeing themselves from communism, made us face a rather similar economic reality- immediately after 1990, both Romania and Albania have coped with strong economic and social convulsions, which has impoverished the population and has led to the disappearance of important production units, even of big sectors of the national economy.
This economic and social process of dissolution was put to an end both in Romania and Albania, and it was followed by one of relative reconstruction of the economy, based on the market economy principles, and, simultaneously, there followed an infusion of foreign investments, mostly beneficial. This evolution of Romania is presented in the first chapter of the paper- “The social economic situation of Romania at the moment of accession”
Resuming the question: “Why Romania?”- the historical argument, completed by the economic one could represent a sufficiently convincing answer. To this, more or less seriously, we might add another argument which can be synthesized in the following answer, which is in its turn a question: Do you know another state, besides Romania, that accepted to be a model?” It seems that at least until now the answer is „no”. Thus, it would not be much of a choice.
The second chapter of the paper- „Romania’s course towards European Union- an assumed commitment” – follows the whole course Romania has gone through to the accession in EU. Obviously, there are no ”lessons”, as the paper does not claim itself to be a model, but valuable conclusions can be reached by presenting concrete situations which different sectors of the national economy have encountered and handled. Thus, this chapter does not deliver „lessons”, it presents objectively concrete situations of Romanian economy before accession, which can be given as examples to follow or not to follow.
The third chapter- „Romania and zero zone- a friendship with happy ending?”- previews the next problem of Albania, after becoming member of EU- adopting the EU currency, process that Romania is going through at present. The history of the euro currency, all along with the social implications which its introduction has had in the first states that adopted it, included in this chapter, offers useful information about what is going to happen in our countries when the currency replaces the national ones.
The last part of the paper, entitled „Finis origine pendent” (The end depends on the beginning) addresses the most important issue of any government act, of any economic and social policy, which, in this case, can be summed up to the question, for Albania: „Will the people have a better life after accession to EU?” and for Romania: „ Do the people have a better life after the accession to EU?” Both our countries had an unfortunate beginning in its transition towards capitalism and the market economy. The current situation of Romania demonstrates that what starts wrongly can end well. For Romania the answer is definitely YES- we have a better life after the accession to EU, and the answer is based on the statistical data. Thus, following the same course of accession to EU, the answer for Albania must also be YES, they will have a better life!
(Poate fi experienţa României de aderare la UE
un model pentru Albania?)
* Abstrakti u drejtohet lexuesve që nuk e njohin gjuhën shqipe (Shtëpia Botuese). Përktheu në anglisht Ana Birtalan. / Acest abstract în limba engleză este destinat cititorilor care nu cunosc limba română (Editura). Traducere în limba engleză de Ana Birtalan.